LAST DECEMBER, THE US GOVERNMENT SIGNED INTO LAW THE 2018 FARM BILL. The sweeping agriculture and nutrition measure provides more than $800B in aid to US farmers, funds federal food stamp programs, and legalized hemp. Hemp, not to be confused with marijuana.
A multi-purpose crop, hemp's rich heritage in the US dates back to colonial days. The industry was undermined in the US by the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, and then completely eradicated in 1970 when all varieties of cannabis, including both hemp and marijuana, were listed as Schedule 1 drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.
Now that hemp is back – and removed from Schedule 1 – there's understandably a lot of excitement. To separate what's an opportunity for its use in apparel and what's just hype, I spoke with growers, processors, retailers, and industry advocates.
From a plant biology standpoint, hemp and marijuana are close relatives with significant differences. Hemp can be bred to take advantage of certain characteristics, such as a high-yielding woody pulp interior – called hurd – for paper, long strands of bast fiber for textiles, hemp grain for human or livestock consumption, or a productive flower for cannabidiol (CBD).
Growing anecdotal and clinical evidence suggests CBD and other cannabinoids and/or flavonoids derived from hemp may be effective in treating a wide range of medical conditions, including neurological disorders, cancer, inflammation, pain, and mood disorders.
While marijuana proponents claim its own health benefits, marijuana is unique in that it contains high levels of the the psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Hemp extracts like CBD do not elicit a psychoactive "high."
Hemp was legalized again primarily in response to growing demand for hemp extracts like cannabidiol (CBD). The Hemp Business Journal reported that the US hemp market was $820M in 2017, led by hemp-derived CBD products at $190M. Estimates for 2022 show CBD products growing to $646M while the entire industry reaches $1.9B. While legalization is important to driving the growth of the US market, the 2018 Farm Bill's hemp provision also makes it possible for farmers and processors to access crop insurance and business loans, while the entire industry can benefit from marketing, increased research, interstate trade and (perhaps) less red tape.
According to Marty Clemons, president of the North Carolina Industrial Hemp Association, the US is well positioned to ride the wave of growing demand despite trailing far behind established hemp industries in other nations. China dominates the market for hemp fiber, Canada does the same for food and grain, and Europe is primarily focused on hemp as a building material, she says. This means the US, with our strong market infrastructure and a global reputation for high quality and regulatory control, could absorb much of the new demand for hemp extracts and dominate the emerging market.
While extracts will continue to lead the market, it's worth noting that hemp consumer textiles already have a large portion (13%) of the US hemp market. However, most of these products are likely rugs, upholstery and other home furnishings imported from China, or made with imported fabric.
It appears that integrating hemp into an apparel supply chain will not come to maturity without a significant amount of effort. Trey Riddle, CEO of Kentucky-based hemp processor, Sunstrand, says there are compelling advantages driving the adoption of hemp for non-woven, industrial technical textiles. (Industrial applications like this are expected to grow nearly as fast as the CBD market to reach $527M by 2022.)
But the same isn't true for apparel. For hemp to integrate with the current spinning infrastructure in the US, it has to be processed to look like cotton. This is feasible, but adds a manufacturing step and processing cost without necessarily adding any considerable performance. The common opinion is hemp is more durable than cotton, but not as soft.
Growers who want to plant a hemp crop specifically for fiber will undoubtedly confront start-up constraints. Challenges include finding and learning to grow a regionally appropriate variety; working with other regional growers to be sure varieties chosen for good fiber production don't cross-pollinate with varieties chosen for extract-producing flowers; ensuring crops don't "go hot" and surpass the 3% federal THC limit before they're inspected; purchasing new harvesting equipment; and finding a regional processor with demand to fill.
There's also the issue of whether or not existing US mills will spin yarn with processed hemp. I conducted an informal survey of nine mid-sized yarn spinners and found that 63% already had some experience with hemp. But nearly all had concerns about the potential for contaminating the manufacturing environment for cotton and synthetic products with the very fine fibers that hemp sheds. Separately, Riddle mentioned there may also be concerns about additional wear and tear on equipment, though I didn't encounter that mill reaction in my survey. Similar to the development of any novel fabric, mills would need a nudge in the form of significant contracts from brands or big manufacturing customers to commit to spinning hemp.
If you've read this far, you may be wondering if hemp will have a significant future in apparel at all. I think it can. But it's going to take time to develop the industry infrastructure, knowledge and relationships. It's also going to take commitment from large manufacturers and brands to adopt the fiber into their product lines and create steady demand.
For those with a commitment to sustainability, hemp offers a compelling new product story. It's one that has potential to connect with younger demographics, while also benefiting from the market buzz that will likely surround the larger, emerging hemp market. Matt McClain, founder of niche hemp brand Recreator, says his company focuses on two primary story elements. The first is the plant's minimal environmental impact and potential for regenerative farming. According to McClain, growing hemp for fiber requires little to no chemical pesticide inputs, making it easier to grow organically. Considering the larger biomass yield, he says it requires about half as much water as cotton while yielding up to twice as much fiber per acre.
<blockquote class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BVVMp4jgkAY/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_medium=loading" data-instgrm-version="12" style=" background:#FFF; border:0; border-radius:3px; box-shadow:0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width:540px; min-width:326px; padding:0; width:99.375%; width:-webkit-calc(100% - 2px); width:calc(100% - 2px);"><div style="padding:16px;"><a href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BVVMp4jgkAY/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_medium=loading" style=" background:#FFFFFF; line-height:0; padding:0 0; text-align:center; text-decoration:none; width:100%;" target="_blank"><div style=" display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"><div style="background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div><div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div></div></div><div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div><div style="display:block; height:50px; margin:0 auto 12px; width:50px;"><svg width="50px" height="50px" viewBox="0 0 60 60" version="1.1" xmlns="https://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="https://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"><g stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd"><g transform="translate(-511.000000, -20.000000)" fill="#000000"><g><path d="M556.869,30.41 C554.814,30.41 553.148,32.076 553.148,34.131 C553.148,36.186 554.814,37.852 556.869,37.852 C558.924,37.852 560.59,36.186 560.59,34.131 C560.59,32.076 558.924,30.41 556.869,30.41 M541,60.657 C535.114,60.657 530.342,55.887 530.342,50 C530.342,44.114 535.114,39.342 541,39.342 C546.887,39.342 551.658,44.114 551.658,50 C551.658,55.887 546.887,60.657 541,60.657 M541,33.886 C532.1,33.886 524.886,41.1 524.886,50 C524.886,58.899 532.1,66.113 541,66.113 C549.9,66.113 557.115,58.899 557.115,50 C557.115,41.1 549.9,33.886 541,33.886 M565.378,62.101 C565.244,65.022 564.756,66.606 564.346,67.663 C563.803,69.06 563.154,70.057 562.106,71.106 C561.058,72.155 560.06,72.803 558.662,73.347 C557.607,73.757 556.021,74.244 553.102,74.378 C549.944,74.521 548.997,74.552 541,74.552 C533.003,74.552 532.056,74.521 528.898,74.378 C525.979,74.244 524.393,73.757 523.338,73.347 C521.94,72.803 520.942,72.155 519.894,71.106 C518.846,70.057 518.197,69.06 517.654,67.663 C517.244,66.606 516.755,65.022 516.623,62.101 C516.479,58.943 516.448,57.996 516.448,50 C516.448,42.003 516.479,41.056 516.623,37.899 C516.755,34.978 517.244,33.391 517.654,32.338 C518.197,30.938 518.846,29.942 519.894,28.894 C520.942,27.846 521.94,27.196 523.338,26.654 C524.393,26.244 525.979,25.756 528.898,25.623 C532.057,25.479 533.004,25.448 541,25.448 C548.997,25.448 549.943,25.479 553.102,25.623 C556.021,25.756 557.607,26.244 558.662,26.654 C560.06,27.196 561.058,27.846 562.106,28.894 C563.154,29.942 563.803,30.938 564.346,32.338 C564.756,33.391 565.244,34.978 565.378,37.899 C565.522,41.056 565.552,42.003 565.552,50 C565.552,57.996 565.522,58.943 565.378,62.101 M570.82,37.631 C570.674,34.438 570.167,32.258 569.425,30.349 C568.659,28.377 567.633,26.702 565.965,25.035 C564.297,23.368 562.623,22.342 560.652,21.575 C558.743,20.834 556.562,20.326 553.369,20.18 C550.169,20.033 549.148,20 541,20 C532.853,20 531.831,20.033 528.631,20.18 C525.438,20.326 523.257,20.834 521.349,21.575 C519.376,22.342 517.703,23.368 516.035,25.035 C514.368,26.702 513.342,28.377 512.574,30.349 C511.834,32.258 511.326,34.438 511.181,37.631 C511.035,40.831 511,41.851 511,50 C511,58.147 511.035,59.17 511.181,62.369 C511.326,65.562 511.834,67.743 512.574,69.651 C513.342,71.625 514.368,73.296 516.035,74.965 C517.703,76.634 519.376,77.658 521.349,78.425 C523.257,79.167 525.438,79.673 528.631,79.82 C531.831,79.965 532.853,80.001 541,80.001 C549.148,80.001 550.169,79.965 553.369,79.82 C556.562,79.673 558.743,79.167 560.652,78.425 C562.623,77.658 564.297,76.634 565.965,74.965 C567.633,73.296 568.659,71.625 569.425,69.651 C570.167,67.743 570.674,65.562 570.82,62.369 C570.966,59.17 571,58.147 571,50 C571,41.851 570.966,40.831 570.82,37.631"></path></g></g></g></svg></div><div style="padding-top: 8px;"><div style=" color:#3897f0; font-family:Arial,sans-serif; font-size:14px; font-style:normal; font-weight:550; line-height:18px;"> View this post on Instagram</div></div><div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"></div><div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"><div><div style="background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"></div><div style="background-color: #F4F4F4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"></div><div style="background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"></div></div><div style="margin-left: 8px;"><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"></div><div style=" width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg)"></div></div><div style="margin-left: auto;"><div style=" width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"></div><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"></div><div style=" width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"></div></div></div><div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"></div><div style=" background-color: #F4F4F4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"></div></div></a><p style=" color:#c9c8cd; font-family:Arial,sans-serif; font-size:14px; line-height:17px; margin-bottom:0; margin-top:8px; overflow:hidden; padding:8px 0 7px; text-align:center; text-overflow:ellipsis; white-space:nowrap;"><a href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BVVMp4jgkAY/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_medium=loading" style=" color:#c9c8cd; font-family:Arial,sans-serif; font-size:14px; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:17px; text-decoration:none;" target="_blank">A post shared by Recreator® (@sowtheseeds)</a> on <time style=" font-family:Arial,sans-serif; font-size:14px; line-height:17px;" datetime="2017-06-14T19:10:09+00:00">Jun 14, 2017 at 12:10pm PDT</time></p></div></blockquote><script async src="//www.instagram.com/embed.js"></script>
Secondly, McClain says the fiber has better performance attributes than commonly believed. He says Recreator's 100% hemp T-shirt (cut and sewn in California from fabric sourced in China) has a softness and drape similar to nylon. Furthermore, he says hemp is naturally hypoallergenic, anti-microbial, odor resistant and moisture wicking. As the most durable of natural fibers, he says it "wears in, not out." He adds that he believes broader adoption of hemp apparel will be led by eco-conscious luxury brands like Stella McCartney, followed by performance brands like The North Face and Patagonia, and then denim brands.
While both on-farm environmental benefits and fabric-performance benefits are commonly attributed to hemp, at this point there's limited scientific evidence supporting claims within the context of the textiles industry. One anticipated outcome from the Farm Bill is increased research in the US into the viability of these promising claims. I personally hope to see a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) between a cotton and hemp crop in similar geographies with like growing conditions for soil, rainfall and thermal units.
McClain's insight also comes from his consulting work with Bastcore, a Nebraska-based company developing hemp processing technologies and regional supply chain relationships. He says in 2-3 years he expects a handful of US hemp processors will be feeding the supply chains of the large, early adopters. At the same time, everyone from plant breeders to fashion designers will be learning to optimise how we grow, process, spin, weave and sew hemp fiber into better and better garments. Then in 3-5 years, he believes numerous US regions could have their own complete supply chains.
This regional vision is what I find really exciting.
<blockquote class="twitter-tweet"><p lang="en" dir="ltr">REC <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Hemp?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Hemp</a><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Fleece?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Fleece</a> – more breathability than polyester, more flexibility than the cheap cotton imports >>> Only at <a href="https://t.co/krxxD2VTES">https://t.co/krxxD2VTES</a><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/sustainable?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#sustainable</a><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/apparel?src=hash&ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#apparel</a><a href="https://t.co/KvzCeeTcN0">pic.twitter.com/KvzCeeTcN0</a></p>— RECREATOR (@Recreator) <a href="https://twitter.com/Recreator/status/1064192215294062592?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">November 18, 2018</a></blockquote><script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
The economics of hemp apparel will likely demand a price premium over cotton and synthetics for at least a decade, if not longer. This is partly because the economics of the CBD market currently overshadow hemp apparel, incentivising US farmers to grow flowering hemp varieties for the existing and growing extracts market. However, further agroecology development and plant breeding of hemp could lead to dual-purpose crops that effectively supply both the extracts and fiber supply chains from the same field.
In the meantime, there's an opportunity for hemp to get a foothold in the market through high-value, regional products with great customization. A pair of hemp pants or a hemp skirt grown and sewn in North Carolina, for example, can appeal to the same growing consumer base that takes pride in supporting and drinking regional craft beer.
Craft brews command a premium over beers that have become household names over the last 60 years, and they support regional jobs and cultures. Regional hemp apparel products could be a similar strategic fit for the apparel industry as it continues to look for reshoring opportunities and to increase mechanizations that allow for greater customization.
Originally published at Just-Style on January 30, 2019.
Photography credits for main image:
Wikimedia - Hemp by Barbetorte - own work, CC BY-SA 3.0
Pixabay - Hemp Fiber Cord
Pixabay - Hemp Shirts